SAHYSMOD SPATIAL AGRO-HYDRO-SALINITY MODEL   Description of Principles, User Manual, and Examples of Application   Sahysmod is a computer program for the simulation and prediction of the salinity    of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the water-table and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands under different geo- hydrologic conditions, varying water management options, including the re-use of groundwater for irrigation by pumping from wells (conjunctive use),and several cropping/irrigation rotation schedules, whereby the spatial variations are accounted for through a network of polygons.     The mathematical model also calculates actual from potential evaporation (evapotranspiration), capillary rise, deep percolation, and groundwater flow.      Optionally, farmers' responses to irrigation and agriculture can be simulated. Sahysmod combines the agro-hydro-salinity model SaltMod and the polygonal ground water model SGMP of my colleague Dr.J.Boonstra. It allows for the introduction of semi confined aquifers.   On web site www.waterlog.info For free downloads see the SahysMod page Category selection:   SahysMod page   software & models   articles & manuals   reports case studies   FAQ's & answers   home page
 TABLE OF CONTENTS   1. INTRODUCTION   2. PRINCIPLES 2.1. Model components 2.2. Polygonal network 2.3. Seasonal approach 2.4. Computational time steps 2.5. Hydrological data 2.6. Cropping patterns/rotations 2.7. Soil strata 2.8. Agricultural water balances 2.9. Ground water flow 2.10 Drains, wells, and re-use 2.11 Salt balances 2.12 Farmers' responses 2.13 Annual input changes 2.14 Output data 2.15 Other users' suggestions   3. AGICULTURAL WATER BALANCES 3.1. The reservoir concept       3.1.1. The surface reservoir       3.1.2. The root zone       3.1.3. The transition zone       3.1.4. The aquifer       3.1.5. Topsoil water balance       3.1.6. Subsoil water balance       3.1.7. Agronomic water balance       3.1.8. Geo-hydrologic water balance       3.1.9. Overall water balance 3.2. Model calculations for water balances 3.3. Capillary rise and actual evapo- transpiration       3.3.1. Depth of the water table and capillary rise factor       3.3.2. Potential evapo-transpiration and moisture deficit       3.3.3. Apparent capillary rise and actual evapo- transpiration       3.3.4. Capillary rise 3.4. The subsurface drainage 3.5. Water balance of the transition zone 3.6. Irrigation efficiencies and sufficiencies   4. GROUND WATER FLOW 4.1. Finite difference method 4.2. Incoming and outgoing groundwater flow       4.2.1 Between two unconfined aquifers       4.2.2 Between two semi-confined aquifers       4.2.3 Between unconfined and semi confined aquifers       4.2.4 Inflow and outflow per polygon       4.2.5 Vertical flow in semi-confined aquifers 4.3. Inflow of salt 4.4. Change of ground water level 4.5. Seasonal values 4.6. Possibilities of and conditions for application   5. SALT BALANCES 5.1. Change in salt content 5.2. Salt balances under full cropping rotation       5.2.1. Above the soil surface       5.2.2. Root zone       5.2.3. Transition zone       5.2.4. Aquifer      5.2.5. Salt concentration of drain and well water 5.3. Salt balances under zero cropping rotation       5.3.1. Above the soil surface       5.3.2. Root zone      5.3.3. Transition zone 5.4. Salt balances under intermediate cropping rotations       5.4.1. Types of cropping rotation       5.4.2. Part of the area permanently non-irrigated, Kr=1       5.4.3. Part of the irrigated area permanently under A crop(s)       5.4.4. Part of the irrigated area permanently under B crop(s)   6. SPATIAL FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL SALINITY   7. FARMERS' RESPONSES 7.1. Reduction of irrigated area when salinization occurs 7.2. Reduction of irrigation when water logging occurs 7.3. Reduction of ground-water abstraction by pumping from wells        8. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SYMBOLS   9. USER MENU 9.1. The main menu       9.1.1. The input menu 9.1.2. Network map       9.1.3. Calculations       9.1.4. The output menu 9.2. Editing the input       9.2.1. Title of data       9.2.2. Main model properties       9.2.3. Duration of the seasons       9.2.4. Overall system geometry       9.2.5. Nodal network relations       9.2.6. Internal system properties       9.2.7. Hydraulic conductivity       9.2.8. Total porosity in soil strata       9.2.9. Effective porosity in soil strata       9.2.10 Leaching efficiency in soil strata       9.2.11 Storage efficiency in crop land       9.2.12 Indices of agricultural practices       9.2.13 Properties of subsurface drainage system       9.2.14 Initial salinity root zone       9.2.15 Initial salinity sub-soil       9.2.16 Init. hydr. head & crit. depth water table       9.2.17 Aquifer inflow/outflow conditions       9.2.18 External boundary conditions       9.2.19 Rainfall and potential crop evaporation       9.2.20 Surface inflow/outflow/drainage       9.2.21 Well discharge, subsurface drainage control       9.2.22 Irrigated area fractions and rice cropping       9.2.23 Irrigation and field application       9.2.24 Re-use of drain and well water       9.2.25 Map of the nodal network 9.3. Inspecting the output       9.3.1. Nodal characteristics       9.3.2. Soil salinity root zone       9.3.3. Salinity transition zone and aquifer       9.3.4. Other salinity       9.3.5. Ground water levels, depth of water table       9.3.6. Groundwater flows, net recharge       9.3.7. Drain and well discharge       9.3.8. Field percolation to the sub-soil       9.3.9. Capillary rise into the root zone       9.3.10 Canal and field irrigation       9.3.11 Irrigation efficiencies and sufficiencies       9.3.12 Crop area fractions, rotation key       9.3.13 Scroll through the entire output file                                                                      10. LIST OF SYMBOLS OF INPUT DATA   11. LIST OF SYMBOLS OF OUTPUT DATA   12. EXERCISE ICMALD 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Input 12.3. 1st Inspection of the output 12.4. Canal lining 12.5. Interceptor drain 12.6. Salt movement in the ground water 12.7. Checking the drainage flow by hand 12.8. Checking the capillary rise by hand 12.9. Checking the groundwater flow by hand   13. CASE STUDY HANSI FARM 13.1. Introduction 13.2. Aquifer recharge 13.3. Drainage discharge 13.4. Epilogue

 SahysMod gives a spatial agricultural, hydrological and salinity model for an area divided into polygons, which are interconnected through groundwater flow in the aquifers. The model creates various water and salt balances namely for the rootzone, the transition zone and the aquifer. The latter is called the geo-hydrologic balance. A drainage system may be placed in the transition zone. The SahysMod software permits three subareas in each polygon with different agricultural practices and irrigation regimes. Farmers responses to changing soil conditions can be evoked.